The wind chills seen in parts of Minnesota this past week have been sufficiently dangerous to present the risk of frostbite in as little as 10 minutes.
So if you're out on the roads, it's all the more crucial that car trouble doesn't become a life-threatening situation.
Every winter there are examples of this happening. Just on Sunday in fact, two motorists had to be rescued from Pillsbury State Forest in the early hours of the morning after their car ran out of gas.
For decades Minnesota parents have been drilling into their children's heads that they need a winter survival kit their car – but time and time again at least some of us forget to prepare properly.
And it can happen to the best of us. State lawmaker Carly Melin recounted how her father's insistence she have such a kit in her car proved vital almost immediately.
- A shovel
- Booster cables
- Sand/cat litter/grit
- Tow cables/chain
- Sleeping bag
- Road flares/reflectors
- Warm clothing and heavy boots
- Cord (to use as a "homing line" should you exit your vehicle)
- A first aid kit
- A windshield scraper/broom
Keep snacks like raisins, energy bars and chocolate to hand. The Minnesota DPS even suggests keeping some canned soup, meat or poultry in the car.
You should also keep some water in the car.
Other useful items
- A cellphone adapter
- A spare cellphone battery charge (in case your car isn't running and you can't charge it using the adapter).
- Small candles and matches
- A small, sharp knife
- Safety pins
- A whistle
- Plastic flashlight with spare batteries
- A pencil and notepad (to make a note of numbers given to you by an emergency dispatcher)
- Portable air compressor (Family Handyman suggests this in the event of tire pressure-related failures)
- A small toolkit (to carry out minor repairs)
It's advised that you keep most of the above items – those not too bulky at least – in the cabin of the car so they're not frozen when you come to use them.
It's also important to check your car is in the right condition for winter driving before you set off. Wikihow has a 13-step checklist you can find here.